|Berlin is the capital
and the biggest city of
Germany. It has a population of about 3.5 million and extends over
889 square kilometers. It is located in central Europe, longitude
13:25 E, latitude 52:32 N, 34 m above sea level, at the rivers Spree
and Havel. The area currently occupied by Berlin has been settled
since the Stone Age, but its 'modern' history began in the 13th
century with the founding of the trading posts of Berlin and Cölln by
itinerant merchants in the area of today's Nikolaiviertel, in the
Mitte district. In 1432, Berlin and Cölln, which were linked by the
In the 1440s, Elector Friedrich II of
Brandenburg established the rule of the Hohenzollern dynasty, which
was to last until Kaiser Wilhelm II's escape from Potsdam in 1918.
Berlin's importance increased in 1470, when the elector moved his
residence there from Brandenburg and built a palace near the present
During the Thirty Years' War Berlin's population
was decimated, but in the mid-17th century the city was reborn
stronger than before under the so-called Great Elector Friedrich
Wilhelm. His vision was the basis of Prussian power, and he sponsored
Jewish and Huguenot refugees seeking asylum and benevolent rule.
The Great Elector's son, Friedrich I, the first
Prussian king, made the fast-growing Berlin his capital, and his
daughter-in-law Sophie Charlotte encouraged the development of the
arts and sciences and presided over a lively and intellectual court.
Friedrich II sought greatness through building and was known for his
political and military savvy. In the late 18th century, the
Enlightenment arrived with some authority in the form of the
playwright Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, and thinker and publisher
Friedrich Nicolai; both helped make Berlin a truly international city.
The 19th century began on a low note, with the
French occupation of 1806-13, and in 1848 a bourgeois democratic
revolution was suppressed, somewhat stifling the political development
that had been set in motion by the Enlightenment. The population
doubled between 1850 and 1870 as the Industrial Revolution, spurred on
by companies such as Siemens and Borsig, took hold. In 1871 Bismarck,
the Prussian Prime Minister, united Germany under Kaiser Wilhelm I.
The population of Berlin was almost two million by 1900.
Before WWI Berlin had become an industrial
giant, but the war and its aftermath led to revolt throughout Germany.
On 9 November 1918 Philipp Scheidemann, leader of the Social
Democrats, proclaimed the German Republic from a balcony of the
Reichstag (parliament) and hours later Karl Liebknecht proclaimed a
free Socialist republic from a balcony of the City Palace. In January
1919 the Berlin Spartacists Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg were
murdered by remnants of the old imperial army, which entered the city
and brought the revolution to a bloody end.
On the eve of the Nazi takeover, the Communist
Party was the strongest single party in 'Red Berlin', having polled
31% of the votes in 1932. Large parts of Berlin remained anti-Nazi
during the years Hitler was in power. The city was heavily bombed by
the Allies in WWII and, during the 'Battle of Berlin' from August 1943
to March 1944, British bombers hammered the city every night. Most of
the buildings you see today along Unter den Linden were reconstructed
from the ruins. The Soviets shelled Berlin from the east, and after
the last terrible battle buried 18,000 of their own troops.
In August 1945 the Potsdam Conference sealed the
fate of the city by finalising plans for each of the victorious powers
- the USA, Britain, France and the Soviet Union - to occupy a separate
zone. In June 1948 the city was split in two when the three western
Allies introduced a western German currency and established a separate
administration in their sectors. The Soviets then blockaded West
Berlin, but a massive Allied airlift kept the area supplied and
allowed it to resist invasion. In October 1949 East Berlin became the
capital of the GDR. The construction of the Berlin Wall in August 1961
stopped the drain of skilled labour to the West.
On 9 November 1989 the Berlin Wall opened, and
on 1 July 1990 the Wall was being hacked to pieces. The Unification
Treaty between the two Germanys designated Berlin the official capital
of Germany, and in June 1991 the Bundestag voted to move the seat of
government from Bonn to Berlin over the next decade. A huge consortium
of public and private organisations was charged with constructing the
heart of a metropolis from scratch. As a result the 1990s saw a ballet
of cranes revitalising Potsdamer Platz, with a new urban district
anchored by DaimlerCity and the Sony Center (completed in 1998 and
2000 respectively). In April 1999 the revamped Reichstag reopened and
hosted the unified Germany's parliament, and Berlin was again
officially the capital of Germany.
© Lonely Planet
Brandenburger Tor (Brandenburg Gate, built 1788-1791 by C. G.
Langhans, with Schadow's quadriga on its top), the place
Gendarmenmarkt with Deutschem and Französischem Dom (German and
French cathedral) and
Konzerthaus ("Schauspielhaus", concert hall), the historic
Nikolaiviertel (Nikolai quarter) with the oldest church of Berlin,
the Nikolai-Kirche, the Deutsche Staatsoper (opera house) Unter den
Linden, the Pergamon museum, the Zeughaus, the
Siegessäule (Victory Column, 69 m), the
Funkturm ("Langer Lulatsch", radio tower, 150 m) and the
Fernsehturm (TV tower, 368 m, at Alexanderplatz), the
Reichstagsgebäude (house of parliament, built 1884-1894 by P.
Schloß Charlottenburg (Charlottenburg Castle) and
Schloß Bellevue (Bellevue Castle, seat of the President of the
Federal Republic of Germany),
Kongreßhalle (congress hall, now called "Haus der Kulturen der
ICC (International Congress Center), the
ruin and the new church
Olympia stadium (from 1936).
about Berlin can be found on:
ISC'2005 conference is held at .Fraunhofer IPK, Berlin. In close cooperation with
its customers, the Fraunhofer IPK works on optimizing industrial processes -
from the initial idea to its development and finally its production. Its aim is to rapidly transform scientific
experiences into practical applications.
The Fraunhofer IPK currently employs about 270 people in research,
administration and technical support. Our offices, laboratories and the
experimental hall cover more than 7.100 m².
Its main objective is to increase the competitiveness
of its customers in the industry. Whether they are producing companies,
service providers or public institutions, IPK strives to enhance their business processes with
advanced technological solutions.
In addition to working in key business areas, such as
mechanical engineering, plant construction, electrical engineering and
often carries out projects with service providers in the Innovative Technology
(IT), public health care and public administration fields.
Since developers and system suppliers are becoming
increasingly more dependent on networking, IPK is particularly interested in
bringing innovative technologies to small and medium-sized enterprises.
Fraunhofer IPK conducts research in five work areas with several
competence centers on applied research and developmental project processes
Telephone +49 (0) 30 / 39006-0
For more information you can go to the
where on the contact page you will find an interactive map, which, however,
only works with Microsoft Explorer.
HOW TO GET TO BERLIN AND FRAUNHOFER IPK
There are hardly any direct flights to Berlin from
overseas and, depending on the airline you use, you're likely to fly first
into another European city like Frankfurt, Amsterdam, Paris or London and
catch a connecting flight from there. Departure tax is included in the price
of an airline ticket purchased in Germany. Berlin has three airports.
(TXL) primarily serves destinations within Germany and Western Europe.
Schönefeld (SXF) mostly operates international flights to/from Eastern
Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas. The third airport is the central but
tiny Tempelhof (THF) in southern Kreuzberg. It became famous as the main
landing strip for Allied airlifts during the Berlin blockade of 1948-49;
however, it is expected to close in 2005. Domestic flights connect Berlin to
all major German airports, usually via Tempelhof and Tegel airports.
Airport Information +49 180-5000 186 (0,12€/Min.)
Berlin's three airports can all be reached by train or
bus, which will save you stacks on taxi fares. Tegel is connected to the
Mitte district by the
JetExpressBus TXL (in
German) (and (in
English)) and the Charlottenburg or northern
Wolmersdorf districts by bus X9 or 109. Schönefeld airport is served by the
AirportExpress train from Zoo station, or the slower S9 from Zoo station,
and bus 171 takes you to Rudow U-Bahn station with connections to central
Berlin. Tempelhof is served by the U6 (get off at Platz der Luftbrücke) and
bus 119 from Kurfürstendamm via Kreuzberg.
Take the airport shuttle bus to the train station Zoologischer Garten, then
the bus as described below
train system connects Berlin with the rest of Germany and other European
countries. Until completion of the main central station at Lehrter Bahnhof
(currently projected for 2006), most trains will continue to go through
Bahnhof Zoo in the western city centre (for destinations to the west of
Berlin) and Ostbahnhof in the eastern centre
To IPK: from train station Zoologischer Garten take bus 245 to busstop
Helmholtzstrasse, follow Helmholtzstrasse for another 200 meters in the
direction the bus was driving and turn left into Pascalstrasse.
Train travel information can be found on
http://www.bahn.de or under
Driving is another option: the A10 ring road links
Berlin with other German and foreign cities in every direction, including
the A11 to Szczecin (Stettin) in Poland; the A12 to Frankfurt /Oder; the A13
to Dresden; the A9 to Leipzig, Nuremburg and Munich; the A2 to Hanover and
the Ruhrgebiet cities, and the A24 to Hamburg.
Motorway A 115 (Avus) from Hannover, Leipzig, Nürnberg or A 100 to exit
Charlottenburg. Along Spandauer Damm towards city center. This road later
becomes the Otto-Suhr-Allee. On Otto-Suhr-Allee left into Cauerstrasse, which
later becomes Helmholtzstrasse. In Helmholtstrasse turn left into
More route information can be found on
Berlin is well-connected to the rest of
Europe by long-distance bus. Most buses arrive at and depart from the ZOB (Zentraler
Omnibusbahnhof), the central bus station, in Charlottenburg, opposite the
stately Funkturm (radio tower).
From train station Zoologischer Garten take bus 245 to busstop
Helmholtzstrasse, follow Helmholtzstrasse for another 200 meters in the
direction the bus was driving and turn left into Pascalstrasse
The exact location of Fraunhofer- IPK
and bus routes
MORE BERLIN MAPS
Or go to:
http://www.berlin.citysam.de/stadtplan.htm for even more interactive